... back to Main Page

Learn All About Insomnia

Topics: insomnia, sleep,



What is insomnia?

You’ve probably had nights when you couldn’t fall asleep, or stay asleep, no matter how desperately you tried.

When you can't sleep, the ticking of the clock only reminds you of your exhaustion and the endless hours until morning. And perhaps you finally drop off around dawn, only to be jarred awake by the alarm an hour later.

Insomnia, the term for having trouble sleeping at night, is one of the most common sleep complaints. About 1 in 3 adults has bouts of insomnia that last a few days at a time. This is acute insomnia. But 1 in 10 adults suffers ongoing difficulty sleeping, known as chronic insomnia. This is defined as insomnia that occurs more than 3 nights a week for over a month.

Insomnia affects people in different ways. If you suffer from it, you may not be able to go to sleep or you may not be able to stay asleep. You might constantly wake up earlier than you would like, perhaps in the wee hours of the morning, and find yourself unable to go back to sleep.

Women are more likely to have insomnia than men. It is also more common among shift workers, who don't have consistent sleep schedules; people with low incomes; people who have a history of depression; and those who don't get much physical activity.

What causes insomnia?

Insomnia has many possible causes. The reasons you're lying awake when you don't want to be are individual. They can include any or all of these:

  • Medications that interfere with sleep
  • Dietary choices, such as caffeine or excessive liquids late in the day, that interfere with sleep
  • Stressful thoughts
  • Depression
  • Recent upheavals in your life, such as a divorce or death of a loved one
  • Hormone changes, such as those accompanying menopause
  • Bedtime habits that don't lead to restful sleep
  • Chronic or acute pain
  • Medical conditions such as acid reflux, thyroid problems, stroke, or asthma
  • Substances like alcohol and nicotine
  • Travel, especially between time zones

What are the symptoms of insomnia?

These are common symptoms of insomnia:

  • Frustration and preoccupation with your lack of sleep
  • Physical aches and pains, such as headaches and stomachaches
  • Impaired performance at work
  • Daytime drowsiness or low energy
  • Difficulty paying attention or remembering
  • Anxiety
  • Tension and irritability
  • Depression and mood swings

How is insomnia diagnosed?

It will be helpful to bring a record of your sleep patterns to your primary doctor.

The process of making a diagnosis may include:

  • Your medical history. Your doctor will consider any medical conditions, any medications you're taking, and stressful life changes that could be causing insomnia.
  • Your sleep history. Be prepared to describe your insomnia with details such as how long it's been going on, what you think could be contributing to it, and what your sleep is like, such as whether you can barely get to sleep at all or if you wake up too early.
  • Physical exam. The doctor will look for any physical reasons that could be causing sleep problems.
  • Sleep study. You may need to sleep overnight in a sleep lab where researchers monitor your sleep.

Typically, your primary doctor will be able to diagnose and help you manage your insomnia. Depending on your personal circumstances and initial response, you may ultimately need to see a sleep medicine specialist.

How is insomnia treated?

You have many options for treatment:

  • Mind-body tools like Progressive Muscle Relaxation or guided imagery to calm your body and mind in preparation for sleep, and relieve pre-bedtime anxiety
  • Avoiding screen time with mobile devices before bed – they emit a blue light that zaps your sleep hormone, melatonin
  • Change in existing medication if that's what's causing the problem
  • Counseling to help relieve stress and other issues bothering you
  • Change in lifestyle choices that may interfere with sleep, like avoiding caffeine in the afternoons, or reducing alcohol consumption
  • Better-sleep bedtime habits, called "sleep hygiene,” which can including creating a bedtime ritual to help you “wind down” for sleep
  • Medications to help you get to sleep and stay asleep

The exact course will depend on what your doctor identifies as the possible causes of your insomnia. 


Key points

Insomnia, the term for having trouble falling or staying asleep at night, is one of the most common sleep complaints. About 1 in 3 adults has bouts of insomnia that last a few days at a time. Women are more likely to have insomnia than men.

  • Insomnia has many possible causes. Your doctor can help you determine what's causing your insomnia, and if you need to see a sleep medicine specialist
  • Common effects of insomnia include impaired work performance, daytime drowsiness or low energy, difficulty paying attention and more.
  • Diagnosis may involve a sleep study in which a sleep specialist monitors your sleep.
  • Small adjustments in medications, daily and bedtime habits can often make a big difference.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care provider:

  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.