Clinical Specialties

The GW Medical Faculty Associates is an elite, academic medical team delivering care through 51 medical and surgical specialties. 

Clinical Specialties
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MFA - The NewsWire

Medical Conditions

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when a weak area of the abdominal aorta expands or bulges. The pressure from blood flowing through your abdominal aorta can cause a weakened part of the aorta to bulge, much like a balloon. Just as a balloon can burst when it gets too large, so can the aorta, and when it does, it can create a life-threatening situation.

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Abdominal Hernia
A hernia is the protrusion of something from the inside of the body, generally the intestines, that creates a lump in the skin elsewhere in the body. In the case of abdominal or ventral hernia, the bulge is in the center of the abdomen. The bulge may be painful and annoying. An abdominal hernia is not dangerous, but can become dangerous if the intestines become trapped outside the abdomen (incarcerated hernia). Hernias need to be repaired if they are growing in size, are painful, or become i ...
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Abdominal Liposuction

Abdominal Liposuction improves body shape by removing fat deposits which are resistant to exercise. The procedure is usually performed on an out-patient basis and can use an ultrasonic technique which liquifies the fat before it is suctioned away. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, numbness or burning, or drainage from incision sites. Potential complications include bleeding, infection, asymmetry, skin rippling or ...

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Aborectal Manometry

Goals – Manometric testing of the anal canal and rectum provides information about the strength, function and tone of the anal sphincter muscles. In most cases it is painless and well-tolerated by patients. Information from this test may be used to help identify the nature of an anorectal disorder, or may be used to measure function before treatment which may then be compared to a repeated test following treatment.

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Achalasia
Achalasia is a condition of the esophagus (the tube connecting the mouth to the stomach through which food passes) which makes swallowing food or liquids through the esophagus difficult. Normally, food passes from the mouth the stomach through the esophagus with the assistance of the coordinated movement of the muscles in the esophagus moving in waves to pass food into the stomach, a process called peristalsis. Achalasia involves both the muscles in the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphi ...
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Acne Vulgaris
Acne vulgaris, commonly known as pimples or blemishes, is an unsightly skin condition which greatly affects self-esteem. Ance is characterized by the presence of open and closed comedones (blackheads and whiteheads, respectively). More severe acne includes erythema (reddening) and nodules (bigger collections of inflammation and, sometimes, pus under the skin). In normal skin, hair grows out of pores called follicles. The human body produces sebum (an oily substance) from glands at the bottom ...
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Actinic keratosis
An actinic keratosis is an abnormal lesion on the skin which is rough and scaly. Like many skin lesions, these are caused by exposure to sunlight. They usually appear on areas which are exposed to sun including the face, ears, neck, lips, hands, forearms, and scalp. Actinic keratoses usually appear in older adults and, if left untreated, can progress to skin cancer. Actinic keratoses come from the top layer of skin, called the epidermis. The top layer of skin usually regenerates in an order ...
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Acute Coronary Syndrome
There are several conditions that fall under the category of Acute Coronary Syndrome: two types of heart attacks called STEMI and NSTEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction) and unstable angina. Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is essentially a condition where the heart loses its blood supply. When this happens, the heart can stop functioning properly. This is a very serious condition which can rapidly lead to death. ACS is usually diagnosed in an emer ...
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Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure is when the liver rapidly stops functioning properly. The liver normally works to helps process nutrients, create proteins including those that help blood clot, and remove drugs and toxins from the body. Some liver diseases happen over time leading to liver failure. In contrast, acute liver failure happens over the course of only a few days and is extremely serious. Without the liver, many of the functions of the body cannot be performed normally. The blood loses its abi ...
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Acute Lymphcytic Leukemia
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is one of several types of cancer of the cells in the blood and bone marrow (the tissue in the center of bones which makes blood). ALL is a cancer where young, immature white blood cells reproduce in an uncontrolled manner. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In ALL, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell would, these cells live a particularly lo ...
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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) is one of several types of cancer of the cells in the blood and bone marrow (the tissue in the center of bones which makes blood). AML is a cancer where immature blood cells reproduce in an uncontrolled manner. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In AML, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell would, these cells live a particularly long time. Nor ...
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Acute Sinusitis
Acute sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses in the face which fill with mucus and become painful. The sinuses are spaces in the bones which are normally mostly empty except a little bit of tissue that can become swollen or inflamed. This inflammation generally begins with a common cold, bacteria, allergies or fungal infections. When the sinuses become inflamed, mucus cannot drain normally and becomes backed up. The sinuses that most often have acute inflammation and get sinusitis are call ...
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Addison's Disease
Addison’s Disease is a disease of the adrenal glands, two small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, which is the system that regulates hormones in the body. The hormones produced by the adrenal glands are extremely important to regulation and balance (homeostasis) of most of the organ systems in the body. There are two sections to the adrenal gland, the medulla and cortex. The inner section (medulla) produces hormones like adrenaline (a ...
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Alcoholic Hepatitis
Alcoholic hepatitis is a term meaning inflammation or infection of the liver as a result of alcohol use. The liver normally works to helps process nutrients for the body, create proteins including those that help blood clot, and remove drugs and toxins (as well as alcohol). The liver is an amazing organ which is capable of regeneration but can be irreversible damaged. It is not clear how alcohol damages the liver, but it may have to do with how the liver processes the toxin and the chemical b ...
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Allergic Rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis is an abnormal reaction of the body to a normal environmental stimulus like pollen. Allergic rhinitis, or hay fever, is the itchy eyes, sneezing, stuffiness, and runny nose that happen when the body is exposed to things that cause allergy (allergens). The immune system normally works in the body to protect us from things that might do us harm, like bacteria or other infections. As part of this immune system, the body produces antibodies which serve to catch things in the bo ...
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Allergies
Allergies are an overreaction of the immune system that results in itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, hives, and, sometimes, extreme swelling called anaphylaxis. Allergies can affect your sinuses, skin, gastrointestinal tract and airways. The immune system normally works in the body to protect us from things that might do us harm, like bacteria or other infections. As part of this immune system, the body produces antibodies which serve to catch things in the body that should not be there, like ...
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Alopecia
Alopecia is the medical term for baldness, but can refer to all sorts of hair loss including that from heredity, medications, or medical conditions. While we generally think hair loss affects men, it can also affect women and children. Hair loss can be very traumatizing. It can affect how you feel and interact in social situations. Normally, the hairs on your head go through cycles when they grow (anagen phase) and when they rest (telogen phase). Each hair independently goes through these s ...
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Anal Cancer

Cancer describes a set of diseases in which normal cells in the body lose the ability to control their growth and to respect their neighbors. These cells will grow with little restraint and invade the surrounding tissues. Many cancers develop into tumor masses as they grow. Cells may also break off from the primary tumor and spread through the blood vessels or lymphatic channels to distant sites where they may implant and grow. Thes ...

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Anal Fissure
An anal fissure is a small break or tear in the skin of the anus which causes bleeding and/or pain. The anus is the muscular area at the end of the colon (or large bowel) that controls defecation (having a bowel movement). The job of the anus is to use its muscle (called the anal sphincter) to control when a bowel movement leaves the body. Usually, an anal fissure will occur as a result of passing stool that is hard or large, as happens with constipation. Any type of inflammation in the anal ...
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Anal Sphincter Ultrasound

Goals – Ultrasound examination of the anal sphincter muscles may identify areas of the muscle that have been injured during childbirth, from surgery or by trauma. Ultrasound works much like radar by sending sound waves through the tissues and measuring the reflected waves. No radiation is used. A circular image of the sphincter muscle is generated.

Pre ...

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Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a severe, extreme allergic reaction which is characterized by rapid swelling of the throat and can progress to inability to breathe, stopping of the heart, and death. Anaphylaxis is an allergic emergency and requires immediate attention. An anaphylactic reaction can happen within seconds of exposure to an allergen like an insect sting, a food, or a medicine. Normally, the immune system works to protect us from things that might do us harm, like bacteria or viruses. As part of ...
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Anemia
Anemia is the medical term used to describe low red blood counts. Blood is made of several components including white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets and plasma. The white blood cells have the job of fighting infection. The platelets have the job of helping stop bleeding. The plasma is the fluid part of blood that allows it to flow. The red blood cells are the cells that have a structure called hemoglobin which collects oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the rest of the body as ...
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Angina
Angina is the medical name for chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to the muscles in the heart. Normally, blood is supplied to the heart muscle through arteries around the heart. As with all organs in the body, the heart requires the oxygen from blood in order to function properly. Plaques made partly of cholesterol can build in these arteries, a condition called coronary artery disease. These plaques make the arteries smaller and less able to provide blood to the heart muscle. A pers ...
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Angioedema
Angioedema is a swelling of the skin, lips tongue and other areas of the body. Most of the time, angioedema is not serious. However, it is possible for angioedema to develop into anaphylaxis which is dangerous and life-threatening. Angioedema is caused by the release of a chemical called histamine from cells called mast cells in the body. The release of histamine can be triggered by allergy especially to foods, medications, or other allergens. Less frequently, angioedema is triggered by hea ...
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Anhidrosis
Anhidrosis is the medical condition of not being able to sweat properly. Sweating is part of the body’s natural function to cool itself down, so not being able to sweat can be quite serious. In anhidrosis, sweat glands stop working for a variety of reasons including damage to the skin (as with scarring from burns), damage to the nerves (from illnesses like diabetes, alcohol use, or a variety of other conditions), medications (like some of those for blood pressure, urinary incontinence, and na ...
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Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome is a condition which causes a tendency for the blood to clot in both the arteries and veins. The body normally produces blood clots in order to keep you from bleeding when you sustain an injury. The body keeps a careful balance between keeping the blood neither too thick (with a tendency to clot) or too thin (with a tendency to bleed). In antiphospholipid syndrome, the body makes antibodies (which are normally produced to fight infection) but misdirects them toward c ...
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Aortic Coarctation
Aortic coarctation is the medical name for a narrowing of part of the largest blood vessel in the body, the aorta. The aorta is the large blood vessel that comes off of the heart to deliver blood to the organs of the body. Narrowing of the aorta can be a problem because the size of the tube through which the blood can flow is smaller, causing the heart to have to pump harder to push the blood forward. Most often, coarctation of the aorta is a congenital condition (a condition present at birth ...
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Aortic Dissection

An aortic dissection is a dangerous condition that occurs when a tear develops in the inner layer of the aorta, which is the large blood vessel branching off the heart.  When an aortic dissection is detected early and treated promptly, your chance of survival greatly improves.

There are two types of aortic dissections:

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Aortic Valve Regurgitation
Aortic regurgitation is the medical term used to describe the backward flow of blood through the aortic valve. The aortic valve sits at the outlet of the left side of the heart (the left ventricle) and controls the flow of blood out of the heart and to the body. All of the four valves of the heart are designed to work like one-way valves to control the forward flow of blood. It is not unusual to have no symptoms from aortic regurgitation. If a person has symptoms, he or she generally feels f ...
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Aortic Valve Stenosis
Aortic stenosis is the medical term used to describe the tightening or narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart. This narrowing of the aortic valve decreases forward flow of blood in the heart. The aortic valve sits at the outlet of the left side of the heart (the left ventricle) and controls the flow of blood out of the heart and to the body. All of the four valves of the heart are designed to work like one-way valves to control the forward flow of blood. Sometimes, a person won’t have an ...
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Aplastic Anemia
Aplastic anemia a condition in which the body does not create enough blood cells causing fatigue, inability to fight infection, and increased risk of bleeding. Bone marrow is the spongy material inside bones where new blood cell components are made from stem cells. The bone marrow makes three different components from stem cells: white blood cells (which fight infection), red blood cells (which transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues in the body), and platelets (which help keep the body ...
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Appendicitis
Appendicitis is a painful abdominal condition caused by an inflamed appendix. Appendicitis usually causes acute abdominal pain and is a surgical emergency. The appendix is a small structure which branches off the small intestine and is what scientists call “vestigial” (meaning it once had a purpose in for other animals throughout evolution, but doesn’t for humans). The cause of appendicitis is the obstruction of its opening to the intestines causing backup of mucus in its pockets and rapid sw ...
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Apthous Ulcer
Aphtous ulcer is the medical name for a canker sore which are small, shallows sores that appear in the inside of the mouth and near the gums. Most of the time canker sores disappear in a week or two on their own. While cold sores on the outside of the mouth are sometimes an indication of a viral infection and are contagious, canker sores inside the mouth are neither contagious nor caused by a virus. Though the cause of canker sores is not known, many factors can lead to canker sores including ...
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Arrhythmia
An arrhythmia is an abnormal heartbeat which may or may not have symptoms. An arrhythmia can cause the heart to beat irregularly, too fast, or too slow. The heart’s pumping motion is coordinated by electrical activity that moves in an organized fashion from the top of the heart (the sinus node) through the middle of the heart (the atrioventricular node) and to the bottom of the heart (through the bundle of His and Purkinje fibers). First the electrical impulse reaches the atria at the top whi ...
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Asperger's Syndrome
Asperger’s Syndrome is a type of developmental disorder that manifests as difficulty communicating and socializing normally. Asperger’s Syndrome falls into the spectrum with other developmental diseases like autism, but is more mild than autism. Asperger’s Syndrome is generally noted since childhood, with children having those same awkward social habits. A person with Asperger’s Syndrome usually isn’t aware that he or she doesn’t fit in with others. People with Asperger’s Syndrome also gener ...
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Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries in the body. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body. When we are younger, our arteries are very flexible and can respond appropriately to changes in blood pressure. However, as we age, higher blood pressure over time as well as buildup of cholesterol plaques can lead to hardening of the arteries. These smaller and less flexible arteries can’t always get enough oxygen-rich blood to the organs th ...
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Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia or abnormal beating of the heart. Normally, the heart’s pumping motion is coordinated by electrical activity that moves in an organized fashion from the top of the heart (the sinus node) through the middle of the heart (the atrioventricular node) and to the bottom of the heart (through the Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers). First the electrical impulse reaches the atria at the top which causes them to contract, filling the ventricles with blood. Th ...
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Atrial Flutter
Atrial flutter is a type of arrhythmia or abnormal beating of the heart. Normally, the heart’s pumping motion is coordinated by electrical activity that moves in an organized fashion from the top of the heart (the sinus node) through the middle of the heart (the atrioventricular node) and to the bottom of the heart (through the Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers). First the electrical impulse reaches the atria at the top which causes them to contract, filling the ventricles with blood. Then, t ...
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Atrial Septal Defect
An atrial septal defect is a hole between the top two chambers of the heart. The heart is made of four chambers, the two upper chambers called the atria and the two lower chambers called the ventricles. Normally, oxygen-deficient blood moves from the body through the right atria to the right ventricle where it is pumped through the lungs to pick up oxygen. It then returns to the left atrium, through the left ventricle and is pumped back out to the body. An atrial septal defect is a hole betw ...
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Atypical Hyperplasia of the Breast
Atypical hyperplasia is a type of “pre-cancer” of the breast. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In cancer, the DNA of the affected cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell would, these cells also live a particularly long time. As a result of reproducing quickly and not dying, these cancers often create masses or growths. Atypical hyperplasia refers to either abnormal cell growth in the breast ...
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Autism
Autism is a severe form of developmental disorder that affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others. Autism generally begins to show symptoms in early childhood, before the age of three. Parents usually note that the child seems not to form attachments, resists affection, has repetitive activities, and prefers to play alone. The rate of autism in the United States is roughly three to six out of every 1,000 children. Though no precise cause of autism is known, many fact ...
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Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are conditions where the body attacks itself. Normally, the body produces antibodies to help fight infection. Sometimes, the body mistakenly produces antibodies that are directed against the body itself, against its own liver in the case of autoimmune hepatitis. The antibodies attack the liver cells, causing severe inflammation and damage. Autoimmune hepatitis, if left untreated, can lead t ...
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Back Pain
Most people in the United States will experience back pain in their lives. Back pain is the second most common reason that patients go to the doctor and a very common reason that people miss work. Back pain can originate from the many parts of the back: the muscles, bones, disks, ligaments, tendons, and even the organs that lie toward the back of the abdomen. The most common cause of back pain is strain of the muscles or ligaments involved in movement. Muscle strain is most commonly arises f ...
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Bacteremia
Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the blood. People sometimes refer to bacteria in the blood as “blood poisoning” but the problem is bacteria, not a poison. The bacteria get into the bloodstream in a variety of ways including infection in the skin, bladder, lungs, abdomen, or just about any part of the body. By the time infection gets into the blood, the disease is pretty severe. If your blood pressure is too low, you may need special medicine to keep the blood pressure high (pressor ...
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Bags Under the Eyes
Puffiness or swelling under the eyes, so-called “bags”, happens as we get older. As we age, the skin on the body becomes thinner, including the skin under the eye. More importantly, the skin becomes less taut and the muscles that support the eyelid become weaker while fat moves forward into the lids and undereye area. The presence of this fat makes the area look puffy. A variety of factors can cause fluid to pool under the eyes including weather changes, hormones, salty foods, not sleeping e ...
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Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Barrett’s Esophagus

Barrett’s Esophagus involves a change in the normal squamous lining of the esophagus to an intestinal type as a response to acid exposure from GERD.  Barrett’s Esophagus is significant because it carries an elevated risk for esophageal cancer, abut 30-125 times that of the general population.  The annual risk of esophageal cancer with Barrett’s Esophagus is approximately 0.5%.

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Barrett's Esophagus
Barrett’s esophagus is the name for abnormal changes in the cells of the lower part of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach). Most of the time, Barrett’s esophagus is caused by repeated exposure to acid from the stomach from gastroesophageal reflux disease though some people who get Barrett’s esophagus never have had any symptoms of acid reflux. If acid is coming into the esophagus but you have no symptoms, this is a condition called “silent reflux”. The repeated e ...
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Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer apart from melanoma. Fortunately, basal cell carcinoma is not likely to spread and easily treated by removal. However, if left alone, basal cell carcinoma can grow large and invade surrounding bone, muscles and nerves. Skin is made of three layers: the epidermis (on the outside), the dermis (the second layer) and the subcutis at the bottom. Basal cell carcinoma comes from the basal cells which live at the bottom of the epidermis. T ...
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Bedsores
Bedsores are the areas of dead and damaged skin that happen as a result of sustained pressure cutting off circulation to certain areas of the body. Bedsores are also commonly called pressure sores or pressure ulcers. The most common locations for these types of sores are the low back (just above the buttocks), the buttocks, the hips, and the heels. As with all other tissues in the body, when blood supply is cut off, the tissue begins to die. Other factors that contribute to pressure ulcers i ...
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Bee Stings
A bee sting is the painful sting caused by a common outdoor insect, the bee. Bee stings are caused by the bee inserting the venom-filled stinger on its back end into a person’s skin. Many insects sting, including bees and wasps. These stings cause pain and swelling and, in some people, a very severe allergic reaction. Normally, bee stings go away quickly on their own. However, in some cases of multiple stings or a severe allergic reaction, you may have to go to the emergency room. The veno ...
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Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Vertigo is a feeling of dizziness that comes on quickly which may feel like a loss of balance or like that the room is spinning. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a type of vertigo that happens suddenly and unexpectedly, especially with turning of the head to one side or change in position of the head including rising from lying down. The ear is a very complex organ that deals with both hearing and balance. With regard to balance, the ear has several structures including the semi ...
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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Urinary Retention

An enlarged prostate may cause urinary symptoms such as frequency of urination, awakening through the night to urinate and an inability to empty the bladder. This can significantly affect a man’s quality of life.

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Blind Loop Syndrome
Blind loop syndrome is a condition where a section of the smaller intestine does not function normally because it does not get the normal flow of food and digestive juices due to being cut off from the rest of the intestine. Normally, food enters the body through the mouth where it gets chewed up and mixed with saliva and some digestive enzymes. The food then passes down the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, the food gets broken down by acid and churning motion. The food passes in sm ...
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Body Lift

Body Lift is a term which incorporates several different surgical approaches to recontouring the area around the waist. The Body Lift is performed as an in-patient procedure. Patients may experience temporary swelling, soreness, bruising or numbness. Potential complications include blood clots to the lungs, asymmetry, bleeding, infection, fluid retention, excessive scarring or necrosis of the skin around the belly button. Patients g ...

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Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplant is the transplantation of healthy blood-producing cells into the bone marrow so that they can make new blood cells. Bone marrow is located in the middle of the long bones in the body and holds stem cells, the cells that multiply and grow into different cells in the body. The job of the bone marrow is to create now red blood cells (that transport oxygen around the body), new white blood cells (that fight infection), and new platelets (that help create clots to prevent ble ...
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Botox
Botox is the brand name for botulinum toxin, a byproduct of certain bacteria that causes temporary weakening of muscles. Botulinum toxin has been used in the past and is currently used for many different medical treatments including neuromuscular disorders. More recently, botulinum toxin has been used to soften the look of wrinkles by weaken the tiny muscles of the face. Botox is administered by dermatologists certified in the administration of Botox. The most effective places to use Botox i ...
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Botox and Dysport

Injectable medications generally are delivered in the doctor's office. They relax muscles across the forehead or around the eyes or mouth to smooth wrinkles and fine lines. The treatments may cause temporary discomfort, bruising, numbness and/or stiffness.


Recovery is immediat ...

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Botox Injections

Spasmodic dysphonia and tremor.

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Bottock Lift

Buttock Lift improves the shape and firmness of the buttocks by removing excess tissue and skin. The procedure generally is performed on an out-patient basis. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, numbness or soreness. Potential complications include asymmetry and scarring. Patients typically return to work within two weeks and to strenous activity within six weeks with complete recovery expected by six months. Resul ...

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Bradycardia
Bradycardia is the medical term for a slower than normal heartbeat. A normal heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute. If your heart beats less than 60 times per minute, you are considered to have a slow heartbeat or bradycardia. The organs of the body, especially the brain, are dependent on receiving oxygen-rich blood from the heart. If the heart pumps too slowly, the oxygen supply to the head may not be enough and a person may feel dizzy or lightheaded and pass out. Similarly, a ...
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Breast Augmentation

Breast Augmentation enhances the size of the breasts using inflatable implants filled with either saline or silicone gel. The implants are placed during an outpatient procedure. Patients may experience temporary pain, swelling, bruising or a change in nipple sensation. Potential complications include implant rupture, development of scar tissue, bleeding, infection, a change in the sensitivity of the nipples. Patients generally retur ...

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Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the breast tissue of either men or women, though it is more common in women. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In breast cancer, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows the cells to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell would, these cells live a particularly long time and can spread through the body. In breast cancer, these abnormal cells form a mass in the breast that can m ...
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Breast Cyst
A breast cyst is a closed, fluid-filled sac that can be present in the breast that is not harmful. Unlike other more solid masses in the breast, a cyst has the feeling of being filled with fluid, like a small water balloon. Generally, breast cysts feel round, fluid-filled and separated from the tissue around them though they can be more firm. The breast is made up of distinct areas of glands in a circular pattern around the breast as well as milk ducts that connect together just under the nip ...
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Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

Breast Lift recontours and raises sagging breasts by removing excess skin, and repositioning tissue and nipples. The procedure usually is performed on an outpatient basis. Patients may experience temporary soreness, swelling, bruising or a change in nipple sensation. Potential complications include thick scarring, skin loss, infection, unevenly positioned nipples, loss of feeling in the nipples or breasts, asymmetry. Patients genera ...

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Breast Pain
Mastalgia is the medical term for pain in the breasts. Breast pain is very common, happening to roughly 70% of women at some point during their lifetime. Many women have breast pain every month with their menstrual cycles with a lot of women reporting breast pain more than five days per month. Breast pain is most common in younger women who are menstruating, though it can occur after menopause as well. Breast pain can have a major impact on a woman’s life, including her relationships at work ...
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Breast Reduction (Reduction Mamoplasty)

Breast Reduction removes fat, glandular tissue, and skin from the breasts making them smaller, lighter and firmer. The procedure is generally performed on an outpatient basis. Patients may experience temporary soreness, swelling, bruising or a change in nipple sensation. Potential complications include infection, fluid retention, injury to the skin, rippling or bagginess of the skin, asymmetry, skin discoloration, excessive scarring ...

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Broken Heart Syndrome
Broken Heart Syndrome is the common name of a temporary malfunction of the heart due to physical or emotional stress. The symptoms of broken heart syndrome often mimic a heart attack with similar chest pain. Broken heart syndrome is also called Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and stress cardiomyopathy. Broken heart syndrome is started by a sudden release of stress hormones that cause the heart to temporarily enlarge and not function properly. The release of stress hormones can be caused by any type ...
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Bronchitis
Bronchitis is the medical term for inflammation of the tubes that connect the mouth and nose with the lungs, the bronchi. The bronchi are the large airways that allow air to pass from the mouth or nose to the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and byproducts takes place. There are two types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a cold or other upper respiratory infection that moves down into the bronchi. Acute bronchitis can be caused by either bacteria or v ...
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Bronchoscopy

A bronchoscopy is a diagnostic test used to view the inside of your lungs and breathing passages. 

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Brugada Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is heart rhythm disorder that is abnormal, runs in families, and can be life-threatening. Brugada syndrome is diagnosed or detected with an electrocardiogram. The problem with Brugada syndrome is that it can lead to unstable heart rhythms that can cause fainting and sudden cardiac death. Often, people who have Brugada syndrome don’t have any symptoms and don’t know that they are at risk for cardiac arrest or heart rhythm abnormalities. The heart’s normal pumping motion is co ...
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Bunion

A painful condition caused by misalignment or enlargement of the bone at the base of the big toe (usually aggravated by improperly fitting footwear or physical activity). Bunions can lead to joint arthritis if left untreated. They also may lead to other foot deformities.

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Carotid Artery Disease

The carotid arteries--the major arteries of the neck--supply the brain with blood and extend from your aorta in your chest to the brain inside your skull. Carotid artery disease occurs when these arteries narrow or become blocked.  This is a serious health problem because it can cause a stroke.

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Castleman Disease
Castleman disease is a rare illness that causes overgrowth of the lymph nodes, structures that normally serve as a signal center for the immune system. Normally, a white blood cell catches a bacteria, virus, or mold in the body then carries it to the lymph node where the other white blood cells send out a cascade of signals to the body to get the infection under control. In Castleman disease, the lymph cells grow too rapidly. While Castleman disease is not a cancer, it is similar to cancers l ...
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Celiac Disease
Celiac disease or celiac sprue is the medical name for allergy to gluten, a protein found in many foods including breads, baked goods, pastas and foods made of wheat, barley or rye. It goes by many names including celiac sprue, gluten intolerance, and gluten sensitive enteropathy. Normally, gluten is broken down and digested in the small intestine at tiny finger-like projections from the wall called villi. These microscopic villi are also responsible for absorbing other nutrients, vitamins, an ...
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Cellulite

Cellulite is the lumpy fat that appears on the buttocks, thighs and hips. If you have cellulite, you are not alone; most women will have cellulite at some point in their lives. Cellulite is not a problem in itself but can be ugly and make you feel self-conscious. Underneath the skin, many structures make cellulite appear. Fibrous cords connect the skin to the muscles below with fat in between. When fat pushes with these cords holding it back, the surface becomes lumpy and uneven. As you might ...

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Cellulitis
Cellulitis is the medical term for bacterial infection of the skin. This infection causes redness, heat and pain in the affected area. Cellulitis may appear after an injury that you remember or may seem to appear out of nowhere. If left alone, cellulitis can progress into a serious infection even spreading to the bloodstream. While cellulitis can appear anywhere on the body, it is most common on the legs. The two most common bacteria causing cellulitis are staphylococcus and streptococcus. ...
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Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy is a condition in which fluid leaks from the layer beneath the retina, the choroid, and collects under the retina.  CSCR tends to occur in young, healthy people, more often men.  Stress appears to be a risk factor.

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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Leaks
A cerebrospinal fluid leak is the clear drainage that comes when the natural sac that surrounds the brain has a tear. Normally, the brain floats in a small amount of fluid in the skull, called the cerebrospinal fluid or CSF. This CSF is held in place by a sac called the meninges. In adults, cerebrospinal fluid leaks may occur as a result of trauma, obesity, high intracranial pressure or causes. Patient's typically experience clear drainage from one nostril which is worsened with bending, exe ...
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Cerumen Impaction
Cerumen impaction is the medical term for earwax buildup in the ear canal. Earwax is designed to protect the ear canal by catching dirt and debris that enter the ear and making it difficult for bacteria to grow. Wax comes from glands within the skin of the ear canal. Along with the tiny hairs that line the ear canal, the wax helps keep debris from getting to the ear drum. Normally, the extra wax falls out of the ear while bathing. For unknown reasons, the wax seems to buildup in some people ...
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Cheek Implants

Cheek Implants alter the basic shape and balance of the face by building promience to the cheekbones. The procedure is often performed on an outpatient basis, but some patients may require an overnight hospital stay. Patients may experience some short term discomfort, swelling, bruising and stiffness. Possible complications include shifting of the implant, development of scar tissue around it, or infection. Patients generally return ...

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Chest wall resections

Sometimes treating a tumor requires a chest wall resection, or removal of a portion of the ribs and muscles of chest wall.

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Chin Augmentation

Chin Augmentation alters the basic shape and balance of the face using carefully shaped implants to fortify a weak or receding chin. The procedure is generally performed on an outpatient basis. Potential complications include shifting of the implant, development of scar tissue around it, or infection. Patients generally return to work within a week and to a normal appearance within one month. Results are permanent.

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Cholangiocarcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma is the medical name for cancer of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ that sits nestled under the liver in the upper right part of the abdomen. The job of the gallbladder is to store the bile produced by the liver and release the bile when it is needed to help digest food. While bile is important to the body, the gallbladder is not a necessary organ. When the gallbladder is removed, the bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine without a pro ...
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Cholecystitis
Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ which sits underneath the liver in the right upper abdomen. The normal job of the gallbladder is to store bile, which is made in the liver then passed down the bile duct system to the gallbladder. This bile is used to help break down the fats that we eat. When something fatty enters the stomach, bile is released from the gallbladder to help break down fats to be used by the body. Most often, the cause of ...
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Cholelithiasis
Cholelithiasis is the medical word for gallstones which are small stones formed from various things that collect in the gallbladder. The normal job of the gallbladder is to store bile, which is made in the liver then passed down the bile duct system to the gallbladder. This bile is used to help break down the fats that we eat. When something fatty enters the stomach, bile is released from the gallbladder to help break down fats to be used by the body. Gallstones can be made of breakdown prod ...
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Chronic Cough
Chronic cough is defined as any cough lasting eight or more weeks. Chronic cough is annoying, frustrating, draining and can be difficult to manage both around your family and in public. Chronic cough can be especially annoying at night if it causes you to lose sleep. Chronic cough is extremely common. The three most common causes of chronic cough include low-grade asthma, acid reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD) and postnasal drip from allergies. If the cause of the chronic cou ...
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a medical disorder that involves excessive fatigue that does not improve with rest and relaxation ongoing for greater than six months. In chronic fatigue syndrome, fatigue may worsen when doing physical or mental activities. Nobody knows exactly why chronic fatigue syndrome happens but some theories, including viral infections, exist. Other theories for the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome include depression, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), iron deficiency anemia ...
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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of several types of cancer of the cells in the blood and bone marrow (the tissue in the center of bones which makes blood). CLL is a cancer where young, immature white blood cells reproduce in an uncontrolled manner. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In CLL, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at an increased rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell would, these cells live a particularly ...
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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is one of several types of cancer of the cells in the blood and bone marrow (the tissue in the center of bones which makes blood). CML is a cancer where blood cells reproduce in an uncontrolled manner. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In CML, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. In CML, this change occurs when two different pieces of DNA called chromosomes swap places, numbe ...
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Chronic Sinusitis
Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses in the face which fill with mucus and become painful. Sinusitis is called “chronic’ when it lasts longer than 8 weeks. The sinuses are spaces in the bones which are normally mostly empty except a little bit of tissue that can become swollen or inflamed. This inflammation generally begins with a common cold, bacteria, allergies or fungal infections. When the sinuses become inflamed, mucus cannot drain normally and becomes backed up. The sinuses that m ...
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Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is the medical term for scarring of the liver. The liver is located in the right upper part of the abdomen. The liver has several jobs including getting rid of toxic material from the blood making clotting components to help stop bleeding, producing hormones, and storing energy in the form of glycogen for later use. Scarring of the liver or cirrhosis happens when the liver is having long-term damage. The long-term damage can be caused by chronic alcohol abuse, hepatitis B, hepatiti ...
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Cluster Headache
Cluster headache is very painful type of headache that occurs in cyclic clusters of multiple headaches generally over the course of a week. The headaches are characterized by one-sided pain (especially localized to the eye), tearing or redness of the eye on the affected side, and stuffiness of the nostril on that side. However, cluster headaches can occur without those classic signs. The headaches are intense and come one suddenly but leave just as quickly. Periods with more frequent headach ...
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Colon cancer
Colon cancer is a type of cancer located in the large intestine (called the colon). When the cancer is located at the end of the colon, in the rectum, it is called rectal cancer. As with all types of cancer, colon and rectal cancer begin when a single cell grows uncontrollably. Normally, cells are programmed to grow in an organized fashion and have a set limit on how long they live. Sometimes, some sort of damage happens to the cell which causes the cell to reproduce uncontrollably and live ...
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Colon polyps
Colon polyps are a cluster of cells that grows in the last part of the digestive tract called the colon. Polyps are usually benign, but can some develop into cancer. The colon is located at the end of the digestive tract and has the job of reabsorbing water from the digested matter and making solid waste. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In colon polyps, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows them to grow and reproduce at higher rate than normal. Instead of ...
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Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is a procedure that a gastroenterologist uses to look at the inside of the colon. The colon is located at the end of the digestive tract and has the job of reabsorbing water from the digested matter and making solid waste. A colonoscopy involves going into a doctor’s office and being made sleepy with medication through an IV. When you are asleep, the doctor places a thin tube with a camera on the end (an colonoscope) into the rectum and into the colon. A colonoscopy is particular ...
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Colorectal Cancer

Most cancers of the colon and rectum begin as single cells that loose their ability to control their growth and to respect their neighbors. They start in the inner lining or mucosal layer of the bowel wall. They will usually develop into a polyp or overgrowth of glandular mucosal tissue before becoming true cancers. These polyps may be pedunculated (mushroom shaped on a stalk) or sessile (flatter with a broad base). Removing these p ...

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Coma
Coma is a word used to describe a state of unconsciousness and is a medical emergency. This unconscious state may be due to many different problems including stroke, brain tumor, serious infections, heart attack (with prolonged lack of oxygen to the brain), drugs, alcohol, seizures, traumatic head injury or underlying illness or disorder. When a patient comes to the hospital with an unconscious state, doctors must work quickly to determine the cause and treat it in order to preserve brain func ...
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Common Warts
Warts are abnormal growths of the skin due to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). The skin is made up of several layers with the outermost being the epidermis. HPV infects the epidermis. There are over 100 different kinds (or strains) of HPV that cause both benign conditions like warts and more serious conditions like cervical cancer. However, the types that cause cancer are not the same types as those that cause common warts. Warts are usually flesh colored and appear as bumps ...
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Compressive Optic Neuropathy
Compressive optic neuropathy is the condition caused by something pressing on the optic nerve (the nerve that carries images from the eye to the brain where they are processed). Many things can compress the optic nerve including infection, swelling, trauma, and masses like cancer. Several minimally invasive endoscopic procedures offered for eye related diseases of the nose and sinuses. Patients with Graves' disease can often experience proptosis or bulging of the eyes. This cosmetic defect c ...
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Concussion
Concussion is a temporary change in the function of the brain due to injury. Concussion is usually caused by a direct injury to the head, most commonly caused during sports. While concussion can be accompanied by a loss of consciousness, it is possible to have a concussion without ever blacking out. Concussion can affect main of the functions of the brain including reflexes, memory, judgment, balance, speech or coordination. The normal brain has a soft consistency and is protected because it ...
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Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure is the medical term for decreased pumping function of the heart. The job of the heart is to pump oxygen-rich blood throughout the body so that the tissues can get the oxygen that they need. Depending on the cause of congestive heart failure, the heart can either become big and floppy or too thick and muscular. In both cases, the heart doesn’t pump as well as it should. Congestive heart failure can be caused by a variety of factors including coronary artery disease an ...
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Constipation

Constipation feels different for different people. Most often, constipation means that a person is having infrequent bowel movements. Other symptoms include the need to strain when going to the bathroom, bloating, abdominal pain, or incomplete evacuation. There is no set number of bowel movements a person must have per day in order to be normal. The average person may have a bowel movement anywhere from three times per day to three ...

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Constipation

Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. The need to strain more than fifty percent of the time when having bowel movements, bloating and abdominal pain are symptoms of constipation. Causes can range from dietary deficiencies and side effects from medication, to a lack of proper nerve and muscle function.

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Corpus Callosotomy

Surgeons interrupt the pathways of seizures by separating the right and left hemispheres of the brain. To achieve this, they sever the corpus callosum which is the bundle of neural fibers connecting the two hemispheres. This procedure generally does not completely stop seizures from occurring. However, seizures usually become less severe because they cannot spread to the opposite side of the brain. This procedure is rarely as it is ...

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Crohn's Disease
Crohn’s Disease is a condition causing chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, one of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Ulcerative colitis can cause chronic diarrhea, cramping and abdominal pain as well as symptoms elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike Ulcerative colitis, which affects only the most superficial layer of the colon and rectum, Crohn’s disease affects all of the layers of the gastrointestinal tract and occurs in patches throughout the digestive tract from the ...
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Cystocele

With cystocele, or bladder prolapse, the muscles at the base of the bladder become thin and weak, causing the bladder to fall down into the vagina.  Much like rectocele, it is common among women with weak pelvic floor muscles. 

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Cystoid Macular Edema (CME)

Macular edema is the accumulation of fluid within the macula (central retina) causing swelling (edema), leading to blurred or decreased central vision. CME may accompany or occur as the result of medication use, retinal vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, or following intraocular surgery.

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

A Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms in the large veins of the arms or legs.  These clots can travel through the bloodstream to the brain or heart, potentially causing a life-threatening event, such as a stroke.


Causes of DVT read more

Defecography

Goals – Defecography is a radiological test of the rectum and pelvic structures which demonstrates anatomy and function. It is an excellent way of finding and measuring internal or complete rectal prolapse, rectoceles, enteroceles, pelvic relaxation and rectal emptying. This test is particularly useful when evaluating complaints of constipation and difficult evacuation. Occasionally, this test will be combined with a cystogram ...

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Diabetic Foot

Vascular disease in patients with diabetes can lead to problems of the diabetic foot.  Because of the complexity of the problem as well as the risk of leg amputation, The GW MFA’s vascular surgeons caring for the patient with a diabetic foot problem are experienced and well-acquainted with the appropriate treatment and management.

Causes ...

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Diverticulitis
Diverticulitis is the inflammation of abnormal outpouchings of the wall of the colon. These outpouchings, called diverticuli, are caused by the weakening of the bowel wall that comes with aging. Often, people do not know that they have these outpouchings (a condition called diverticulosis) until they have an episode of diverticulitis. Being older as well as eating a diet which is low in fiber and high in fat contributes to the formation of diverticuli and getting subsequent diverticulitis. D ...
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Diverticulosis
Diverticulosis is the presence of abnormal outpouchings in the wall of the colon. These outpouchings, called diverticuli, are caused by the weakening of the bowel wall muscles that comes with aging. Often, people do not know that they have these outpouchings until they have an episode of diverticulitis, inflammation of the outpouchng. Being older as well as eating a diet which is low in fiber and high in fat contributes to getting diverticulosis. If you have diverticula, there are things you ...
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Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)

Dry ARMD is the most common form of ARMD.  With age, there is a slowdown in the transportation of waste from the retina.  As a result, waste builds up under the retina and forms yellow deposits known as drusen. Dry ARMD generally progresses slows and rarely leads to severe vision loss. 

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Duodenal Switch
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Ear Surgery (Otoplasty)

Ear Surgery helps set prominent ears closer to the head or reduces the size of larger ears. The procedure is generally performed on an out-patient basis. Potential complications include bleeding, infection, scarring, mismatched or artificial-looking ears, or recurrence of the protrusion which would require follow-up surgry. Patients generally return to work within a week and to strenuous activies within a two weeks. Results are perm ...

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An EEG provides a record of the electrical activity going on in the brain. A technician connects an EEG machine to specific parts of a patient's head using wires and electrodes. The electrodes pick up signals from the different parts of the brain and chart those signals as waves that change depending on activity. Epilepsy often produces abnormal brain waves not only during seizures, but also at other times. Physicians in The Epilep ...

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Encephalocele
An encephalocele is a bulging out of the skull filled with brains and the membrane that surrounds them. Encephalocele in children is cause by neural tube defects. In adults, cerebrospinal fluid leaks or encephaloceles may occur as a result of trauma, obesity, high intracranial pressure as well as unknown causes. Patient's typically experience clear drainage from one nostril which is worsened with bending, exercise and straining. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks may cause serious complications such a ...
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Epiphora
Epiphora is the medical name for excessive tearing of the eye. Several minimally invasive endoscopic procedures offered for eye related diseases of the nose and sinuses. Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) doctors can help these tears drain in a more comfortable fashion through minimally invasive procedures. ...
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Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)/Macula Pucker

An epiretinal membrane is a collection of cells that form into scar tissue on the inner surface of the retina.  This scar tissue can cause wrinkles or swelling in the retina that can cause your vision to become blurry or distorted.

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Epistaxis
Epistaxis is the medical word for a nosebleed. Many factors contribute to epistaxis including medications (especially those which thin blood), dry climate, medical conditions, and manual manipulation (nose picking or sticking other objects in the nose). The nasal passages have blood vessels which lie very close to the surface of the nasal mucosa. Risk factors for nosebleed include being either young or old, having high blood pressure, and certain medications. The two types of nosebleeds are ...
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Esophagectomy

Esophagectomy is the surgical removal of the esophagus. 

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Esophagoscopy

An esophagoscopy is a test designed to examine the esophagus, the muscular tube leading from the mouth into the stomach.

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Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)

Eyelid Surgery corrects drooping upper eyelids and puffy bags below the eyes by removing excess skin, fat and muscle. The procedure is generally performed on an out-patient basis.  An incision is made just under the eyelid, the fat and excess skin are removed, and the two areas are sewn together with very small stitches. Potential complications include bleeding, infection, swelling at the corners of the eyes, development of dry ...

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Face Lift (Rhytidectomy)

Face Lift improves sagging facial skin, jowls, and loose neck skin by removing excess fat, tightening muscles and redraping skin. The procedure is usually performed under 'twilight' anesthesia on an out-patient basis, but some patients may require brief hospital stays. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, numbness and skin dryness or tenderness. Men may need to pursue laser hair removal where the beard is reposition ...

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Facial Liposuction

Facial Liposuction improves the contours of the face by removing resistant fat deposits. It is generally performed as an out-patient procedure and can be performed with techniques which infuse targeted fat cells with saline solution to reduce post-operative brusing and swelling. Commonly targeted areas include the chin, cheeks, neck and jowls. Side-effects include temporary bruising, swelling, numbness, soreness or fluid drainage. P ...

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Fallen Arches (flat feet)

Low arches can lead to arch and heel pain, development of bunions, hammertoes, fatigue with activity.

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Fat Injection

Fillers plump skin on the face or hands which has lost volume to the aging process. Filler materials range from body fat and collagen to natural acids to synthetic materials and are generally offered on an outpatient basis under local anethesia.

Fat Injections offer a short term solution for people who want to plump cheeks and lips, or to fill lines and wrin ...

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal incontinence is the inability to control passage of bowel movements. While it can affect men and women of all ages, it is more common in women. Causes of fecal incontinence include constipation, damage to the ring of muscles that keep the anus closed, and loss of storage capacity in the rectum, diarrhea, and pelvic floor dysfunction.

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Flashes/Floaters

Floaters are tiny clumps of gel or cells in the vitreous, the clear jelly-like fluid that fills the back chamber in your eye.  The technical name for these flashing lights is “photopsia”. The new onset of floaters, particularly if accompanied by flashes, is a symptom which requires evaluation. New floaters or an increase in existing floaters may occur with shrinking of the vitreous gel away from the retina (called ...

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Focal Resection

After identifying the portion of the brain where seizures originate, surgeons can specifically target and remove problem areas. The procedure is most often performed on the temporal lobe, but can also occur in other parts of the brain. Your physician will recommend a thorough set of tests to determine the location of the seizure focus and confirm that the surgery will not risk the loss of any important functions such as speech or m ...

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; prompting more than 1.8 million outpatient clinic visits per year.  Approximately 44% of Americans report GERD at least once a month.  The Center for Digestive Disorders at The GW Medical Faculty Associates offers comprehensive management of GERD, including the latest technology in diagnosis and therapy.

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Graves Orbitopathy
Graves Orbitopathy is the condition of bulging of the eyes caused by Graves Disease (overactivity of the thyroid). Graves disease is an autoimmune condition, a disease where the body accidentally attacks itself (the thyroid gland in this case). Graves Disease can cause bloodshot and bulging eyes. In addition to treating Graves Disease itself, several minimally invasive endoscopic procedures offered for eye related diseases of the nose and sinuses. This cosmetic defect can be improved by mini ...
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Hammertoes

This is a progressive change in the position of the toes. As the toes become more bent and rigid they can press against the top of a shoe or other toes leading to painful corns.

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Heel Pain

Irritation of the ligament situated along the bottom of the foot and attaching to the heel. This is often most painful with the first steps after rest.

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High Risk Medication Follow-Up

Certain medications (Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine, Ethambutol, Thioridazine, Deferoxamine, Interferon) used to treat systemic disease can damage central or color vision and patients on these medications should be screened through a complete ophthalmologic examination and in some cases, visual field and electrophysiologic testing, at an interval determined based on drug dose, potential duration, and other patient-specific factors. ...

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HIV Retinopathy

The HIV infection can cause damage to many parts of the eye, including the retina. Retinal changes typically are related to the CD4 count and viral load. The lower the the CD4 count and the higher the viral load, the more likely retinal damage may occur. Patients with HIV are at a higher risk of acquiring opportunistic infections. The infectious organisms can also affect the retina. All patients with HIV should have an annual dilat ...

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Hives
Hives, also known as urticaria, are an itchy, bumpy rash over the skin that comes as a result of allergy. Most of the time, hives are not serious. However, hives can be associated with angioedema, a swelling of the tongue, lips and throat that can lead to severe disease and even death. Hives are caused by the local release of a chemical called histamine from certain cells in the body called mast cells. The release of histamine can be triggered by allergy to foods, medications, or other aller ...
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Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina, these changes range from mild to severe. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it has been high, the more severe the damage is likely to be. The damage can have detrimental effects on the vision. When you have diabetes, high cholesterol levels, or you smoke, you have a higher risk of damage a ...

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Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is a type of cancer that causes swelling, tenderness and redness of the breast which appears and spreads in a very short time frame. This type of breast cancer is rare, but can be very serious. Normally, lymph fluid draining from the breasts moves to the body through lymphatic ducts. In inflammatory breast cancer, these ducts become blocked off, fluid backs up and the breast becomes very swollen and painful. It is very easy to confuse inflammatory breast cancer wit ...
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Ingrown Toenails

An excessively curved nail which causes pain by growing into the skin.

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Inguinal Hernia
An inguinal hernia is the protrusion of something from the inside of the body, generally the intestines, that creates a lump in the inguinal area of the body (to the sides of the groin). The bulge may be painful and annoying. An inguinal hernia is not dangerous, but can become dangerous if the intestines become trapped outside the abdomen (incarcerated hernia). Inguinal hernias need to be repaired if they are growing in size, are painful, or become incarcerated. Sometimes hernias occur as a ...
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Ischemic colitis
Ischemic colitis is the name given to inflammation of the large intestine (colon) caused by decreased blood flow to the colon. Ischemic colitis can happen in any part of the colon but is most common on the left side of the colon as a result of the blood distribution to that side of the colon. The symptoms of ischemic colitis include abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and having to defecate urgently. Ischemic colitis is most often caused by a small blood clot in the arteries which supply blood t ...
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Ketogenic Diet

A doctor might choose a ketogenic diet for patients who respond poorly to medication. On the diet, patients eat foods rich in fats and oils, but low in proteins and carbohydrates. This creates a condition called ketosis in the body, which can help control seizures. However, achieving this reduction requires strict compliance with the diet.

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Laproscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Laryngeal Surgery

Microflap excision of polyps, cysts, Reinke's edema; medialization laryngoplasty (thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction); vocal fold injection augmentation; endoscopic and open removal of laryngeal carcinoma with reconstruction.

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Laryngitis
Laryngitis is voice loss due to inflammation in the larynx or voice box. This inflammation can be due to an overuse injury, infection, or other causes of irritation. The larynx is called the “voice box” because the vocal cords which produce sound are in this area. The job of vocal cords is to open and close while air passes through them from the lungs to produce sounds. Normally the vocal cords are smooth and move fluidly. When inflammation happens to these vocal cords, the nature of a per ...
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Lattice Degeneration

A usually asymptomatic condition present in up to 10% of the general population, lattice degeneration represents an area of retinal thinning with overlying vitreous (liquid jelly filling ~80% of the eyeball) which confers a higher risk of developing retinal holes, tears and detachments.  Complete ophthalmic examination is required in patients with lattice degeneration to surveil for retinal sequelae.

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Lower Body Liposuction

Lower Body Liposuction improves body contours by liquifying and vacuuming away fatty deposits. Commonly targeted areas include the buttocks, hips, thighs, knees, calves and ankles. The procedure is generally performed on an out-patient basis, but more extensive approach may require brief hospital stays. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, drainage, numbness, soreness or a burning sensation. Potential complications ...

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Lower Extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Claudication is pain felt in the legs during walking.  The symptoms typically begin when you start to exercise and go away a short time after you rest.  Rest pain is pain without walking that usually occurs first at night and affects sleep. Non-healing wounds are sores or ulcers on the legs that will not heal due to lack of circulation. Without proper treatment, rest pain ...

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Lymphedema

Lymphedema is a common cause of leg and arm swelling and is due to the collection of too much lymph fluid.  The most common damage impacts the delicate vessels that hold the lymph fluid, called lymphatics.   When the lymphatic system is damaged, lymph fluid accumulates in the tissues of the arm or leg and causes swelling.

Common causes of ly ...

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Macular Hole

The Macula, located in the center of the retina, is the part of the retina is responsible for the clarity of vision.  A macular hole is a small, round opening in the center of the macula.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

An MRI makes detailed pictures of the brain by using a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy. It can detect abnormal blood vessels, tumors, scar tissue, and other lesions that may be responsible for producing seizures.

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Male Breast Cancer
Breast cancer does occur in men, although it is less common. Men do not think of themselves as at risk for breast cancer, so masses felt in the breast tissue will often be ignored, rather than seeking the help of a doctor. DNA normally controls how the cells grow and reproduce. In breast cancer, the DNA of these cells has a mutation that allows the cells to grow and reproduce at a very high rate. Instead of dying like a normal cell, these cells live a particularly long time and can spread th ...
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Male Breast Reduction (Gynecomastia)

Male Breast Reduction reduces enlarged breasts in men using liposuction and/or removing excess glandular tissue. The procedure is generally performed on an out-patient basis. Patients may experience temporary soreness, swelling, bruising or a burning sensation. Potential complications include infection, bleeding, fluid retention, injury to the skin, rippling or bagginess of the skin, asymmetry, skin discoloration, excessive scarring ...

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Mastitis
Mastitis is the medical name for infection of the breast. Mastitis is characterized by pain, swelling, redness of the breast and may involve fever or chills. Generally, mastitis is a result of breast-feeding, but can occur to women who are not breast feeding as well. Most often, mastitis happens within the first three months of breast feeding, but can occur at any time throughout that period. Mastitis is common during breast feeding because bacteria from the skin or the baby’s mouth can ente ...
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Mediastinoscopy

A mediastinoscopy provides a view of the inside of the chest.

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Medication Therapy

Medication can be used to control seizures and may even keep patients seizure free for long periods of time. There are more than 20 different medications available to treat epilepsy. Some can interact with other medications or have an effect on mood or body weight. These effects could be either unwanted or desirable depending on the situation. For example, some medications will treat other illnesses such as headaches, in addition t ...

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Mesenteric Ischemia

The mesenteric arteries supply blood to your large and small intestines. Ischemia occurs when your blood cannot flow through your arteries and your intestines do not receive the necessary oxygen.  This can be a life-threatening condition and may require prompt treatment. The GW MFA’s vascular surgeons are experts in identifying and treating mesenteric ischemia.

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Mommy Makeover

Having a child can be the most exciting time in your life, but you devote so much of your time and energy to your children that you sacrifice your well-being.  Child-bearing can leave unwanted effects such as deflated sagging breasts, stretched out excess abdominal skin and fat that is totally resistant to diet and exercise.  Positive self-image can benefit mommy and the entire family.  Mommy Make Over’s offer a ...

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Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction is the medical name for a heart attack. There are two types of heart attacks called STEMI and NSTEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction). A heart attack is a condition where the heart loses its blood supply and falls under the category of acute coronary syndrome. When this loss of blood supply happens, the heart can stop functioning properly. This is a very serious condition which can rapidly lead to death. A heart attack is ...
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Nail Fungus

Discoloration or thickening of the toenail.

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Nasal Polyps
A nasal polyp is a small non-cancerous growth that comes from the lining of the nasal passage. If the nasal polyp is small, you may not notice that you have it. However, even though they are benign (not harmful), they can continue to grow over time and can cause symptoms like difficulty breathing and smelling. The normal nasal passage is lined with mucus to catch unwanted substances and tiny hairs called cilia that help pass the substances forward and out of the nose. Nasal polyps come from ...
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Nasal Surgery (Rhinoplasty)

Nasal Surgery recontours the nose by adjusting the size, removing a bump, altering the tip, bridge, or span of the nostrils, or by changing the angle between the nose and upper lip. The procedure generally is performed on an out-patient basis and can cause temporary swelling, bleeding, bruising or headaches. Potential complications include infection, skin discoloration, or incomplete improvement requiring follow-up surgery. Patients ...

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Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a type of cancer that originates in an area of the head called the nasopharnyx which is located between the back of the nose and the top of the throat. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to detect nasopharyngeal carcinoma early on because it is hidden in an area that is not seen on routine physical exam and the cancer can grow for a long time before causing any symptoms. Also, many of the symptoms of nasopharyngeal cancer can be caused by common and benign (not dange ...
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Neck Lift

Neck Lift is often performed in combination with a Face Lift and involves tightening the superficial muscles of the neck to define the jawline and neck. If the Neck Lift is done without a Face Lift, it is typically performed in conjunction with liposuction. The procedure generally is performed on an out-patient basis. Side effects may include short term swelling, bruising, bleeding and asymmetry. One potential complication of surger ...

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Neuropathy

Can cause reduced sensation or pain, leading to unnoticed symptoms and possible delays in treatment of infection, ulceration, and progressive foot deformities.

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Neurosurgery

Some patients with epilepsy whose seizures cannot be controlled by medications may be ideal candidates for neurosurgery. The decision to undergo surgery is based on each patient's personalized needs.

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NPDR

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.  In some people with diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid, this is the basis for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. At the earliest stage (mild nonproliferativ ...

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Orbital Abscess
An orbital abscess is a collection of bacteria and pus located behind the eye in the orifice of the skull called the orbit. Several minimally invasive endoscopic procedures offered for eye related diseases of the nose and sinuses. Patients with Graves' disease can often experience proptosis or bulging of the eyes. This cosmetic defect can be improved by minimally invasive endoscopic orbital decompression through the nose and sinuses. Other patient's may suffer from loss of vision due to pres ...
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Overactive Bladder

Overactive bladder is when the bladder muscle involuntarily contracts, causing a sudden urge to urinate.  This strong sensation is more frequent than usual, and patients may have difficulty getting to the bathroom in time. The disorder may be associated with incontinence.

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PDR

In other people, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina, this the basis for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. At this advanced stage, the signals sent by the retina for nourishment trigger the growth of new blood vessels. These new blood vessels are abnormal and fragile. They grow along the retina and along the surface of the clear, vitreous gel that fills the inside of the eye. 

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Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when the pelvic muscles and tissue weaken and can no longer support a woman’s pelvic organs. The uterus, bladder or rectum lose elasticity and descend or bulge into the vagina, causing pressure in the lower abdomen, urinary or fecal incontinence, constipation or diminished sexual function. In extreme causes the pelvic organs can drop through the vaginal opening. 

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Peripheral Aneurysm

Peripheral aneurysms refer to aneurysms that affect the arteries other than the aorta. These are most commonly located in the legs.

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Per-oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM)

Per-oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive procedure performed to help restore a patient’s ability to swallow food and liquids.

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Phlebectomy

A phlebectomy involves the removal of a varicose vein through micro-incisions. This technique may be used to remove a single vein or isolated vein clusters and is performed using a local anesthetic, resulting in minimal to no scarring.

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Poor Circulation

Limited blood flow impairs the ability to fight infection, heal wounds and can be a source of leg pain while walking or at rest.

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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

A PET scan uses a radioactive material called a tracer to highlight areas of concern in the brain.

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Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD)

A frequent cause of flashes of light and floaters, a posterior vitreous detachment is separation of the vitreous jelly (clear gel which occupies ~80% of the eyeball) from the retina and typically occurs in most adults between 50 and 70 years of age, although it may occur at a younger age in those who are nearsighted or have undergone previous eye surgery. 

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Presbycusis
Presbyscusis is the technical name for the common type of hearing loss that comes with age. Hearing lss is very common as we get older, with half of people over the age of 75 having some degree of hearing loss. Many factors contribute to age-related hearing loss especially heredity (inherited diseases from the family) and being exposed to loud noises over time. Sometimes something as simple as a foreign object or earwax building up in the ear canal can lead to loss of hearing. Hearing is muc ...
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Primary Aldosteronism
Primary aldosteronism is the overproduction of aldosterone in the adrenal glands. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid which is produced to balance the body’s sat content. The adrenal glands are two small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, which is the system that regulates hormones in the body. The hormones produced by the adrenal glands are extremely important to regulation and balance (homeostasis) of most of the organ systems in the ...
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Primary Aldosteronism
Primary aldosteronism is a medical condition where the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone. Adrenal glands are two small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system which regulates hormones in the body. The hormones produced by the adrenal glands are extremely important to regulation and balance (homeostasis) of most of the organ systems in the body. There are two sections to the adrenal gland, the medulla and cortex. The inner section ...
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Pudendal Nerve Terminal Motor Latency (PNTML)

Goals – The pudendal nerves are the main nerve fibers leading from the brain and spinal cord to anal sphincter muscles. There is one on the right and one on the left. These nerves may be damaged by direct trauma, age or by stretching during childbirth or prolonged straining with bowel movements. When a nerve has been injured, it conducted impulses at a lower rate than normal. The conduction speed of the pudendal nerve is teste ...

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Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment

Laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal granuloma, and laryngeal leukoplakia.

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Radiesse

Fillers plump skin on the face or hands which has lost volume to the aging process. Filler materials range from body fat and collagen to natural acids to synthetic materials and are generally offered on an outpatient basis under local anethesia.

Radiesse is a non-toxic, non-allergenic synthetic injectable filler which is usually delivered in the doctor's off ...

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Rectocele

A rectocele us a bulge of the front wall of the rectum into the vagina. The rectal wall may become thinned and weak, and it may balloon out into the vagina when you push down to have a bowel movement. Most rectoceles occur in women where the front wall of the rectum is up against the back wall of the vagina. This area is called the rectovaginal septum and may be a weak area in the female anatomy. Other structures may also push into ...

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Rectocele

When the area between the rectum and vagina, known as the rectovaginal septum, becomes thin and weakens, the rectum may bulge into the vagina during bowel movements. Constipation, a difficult labor or childbirth and hysterectomy can cause this weakness of the pelvic tissue. 

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Renal Artery Disease

Renal artery disease, also called renal artery stenosis, affects the renal artery, which is the main blood supply of the kidneys.   Renal artery disease is a narrowing or blockage of the artery that supplies the kidney.


The most common cause is atherosclerosis, or ...

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Restylane/Perlane/Juvederm

Fillers plump skin on the face or hands which has lost volume to the aging process. Filler materials range from body fat and collagen to natural acids to synthetic materials and are generally offered on an outpatient basis under local anethesia.

Restylane/Perlane are clear liquid gels composed of non-animal-based hyaluronic acid and is used to reduce or elim ...

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Retinal Artery Occlusion

The central retinal artery and its branches carry oxygen-rich blood to the retina.  When the retina’s main artery or one of its branches gets blocked, the cells in the retina start to suffocate from lack of oxygen.  This blockage is called an occlusion and usually results in sudden, painless vision loss.  There are two main causes of a retinal artery occlusion: a thrombus (blood clot) or an embolus (blood clot ...

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Retinal tear

As one gets older, the vitreous, the clear gel-like substance that fills the inside of the eye, tends to shrink slightly and take on a more watery consistency. Sometimes as the vitreous shrinks it exerts enough force on the retina to make it tear. Retinal tears increase the chance of developing a retinal detachment. As the fluid vitreous passes through the tear it lifts the retina off the back of the eye like wallpaper peeling off ...

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Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO)

The retinal veins carry blood away from the retina, back to the heart.  When one of the retinal veins is blocked (called an occlusion), blood flow backs up and causes bleeding and swelling within the retina.

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Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

An inherited or sporadic condition, RP represents a progressive retinal degeneration of the small cells within the eye (rods and cones) responsible for sensing light.  There are a few causes of treatable RP, which can be identified through clinical examination and blood work, and several associated syndromes which may require further systemic evaluation. Fami ...

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Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Sculptra

Fillers plump skin on the face or hands which has lost volume to the aging process. Filler materials range from body fat and collagen to natural acids to synthetic materials and are generally offered on an outpatient basis under local anethesia.

Sculptra has been used across Europe since the 90s to improve hollowed cheeks, sunken eyes and wrinkles. Injection ...

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Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

Two scans of the brain are performed for this test: one during a seizure and another while the brain is functioning normally. Radioactive material is used to highlight the active sections of the brain and the two scans are compared. The seizure focus (the area that is producing seizures in the brain) is highlighted by subtracting the non-seizure scan from the seizure scan. This test often tremendously helps physicians to make surgi ...

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Sleeve Gastrectomy
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Spider Veins

Spider veins are small threadlike veins that lie close to the surface of the skin. They connect to the larger veins but are non-essential.

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Subperiosteal Abscess
A subperiosteal abscess is a collection of bacteria and pus located under the first layer of bone, usually in the skull. Several minimally invasive endoscopic procedures offered for eye related diseases of the nose and sinuses. Patients with Graves' disease can often experience proptosis or bulging of the eyes. This cosmetic defect can be improved by minimally invasive endoscopic orbital decompression through the nose and sinuses. Other patient's may suffer from loss of vision due to pressur ...
read more
Thigh Lift

Thigh Lift improves the contours of the upper leg by removing excess tissue and skin. The procedure typically is performed on an out-patient basis. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, numbness, soreness or a burning sensation. Potential complications including scarring and irregularities in the contours of the skin. Patients generally return to work within two weeks and to strenous activity within a month or two. R ...

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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is similar to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) except that the aneurysm is located in the chest (thorax).

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Thoracotomy

Thoracotomy provides the physicians with an insightful view of the lung and surrounding tissue. 

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Tinea Pedis
Tinea pedis is the medical term for athlete’s foot, a fungal infection on the foot. Athlete’s foot causes a tremendous amount of itching as well as burning or stinging. The fungi that infect the foot in athlete’s foot are from a mold-like group called “dermatophytes” which have projections the stick down into the top layers of skin. The skin responds to the irritation by producing more cells which lead to thickening and cracking of the skin in the infected area. Fungus likes to grow in the m ...
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Toxoplasmosis

Ocular toxoplasmosis represents a parasitic infection acquired usually from cats, undercooked meat or dairy products, typically without systemic manifestations in adults.

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Tracheal resections

Tracheal resections and reconstruction can be done for benign or malignant conditions of the trachea. Typically, a portion of the trachea will be removed and the two sections will be put back together.

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Transit Time

Goals – The Transit Time study is a test of intestinal function. It is designed to determine the time it takes for markers to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. Each dissolvable gelatin capsule contains 24 small markers. The capsules dissolve in the intestine and the markers travel through the intestinal tract with the food. These markers are visible on x-rays of the abdomen and may be counted. The Transit Time is calcul ...

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Trauma-Induced Injuries

Injuries like ligament tears, ankle sprains, and fractures of the foot and ankle are common reasons for visits. Injuries associated with professional and recreational sports are another area of specialization.

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Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty)

Tummy Tuck is a term applied to a variety of procedures which remove tissue and recontour the body from the belly button to the pubic bone. Some approaches remove excess skin and fat; others tighten the muscle or use these surgical techniques in combination. The procedure may be conducted either on an out-patient or in-patient basis. Patients might experience temporary swelling, soreness or bruising. Potential complications include ...

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Ulceration

Usually caused by excessive pressure or trauma. They often occur under corns, calluses or blisters.

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Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis is a condition causing chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, one of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Ulcerative colitis can cause chronic diarrhea, cramping and abdominal pain. Ulcerative colitis is different than other inflammatory bowel disease because it affects only the very inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract and begins at the end of the digestive tract (in the rectum and colon) and is continuous. This pattern is different than Crohn’s disease whic ...
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Upper Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

Upper Arm Lift improves the shape and firmness of the upper arm. It is generally performed as an out-patient procedure. Patients may experience temporary bruising, swelling, soreness, numbness or fluid retention. Potential complications include scarring or irregularities in the contour of the skin. Patients generally return to work with a week and to strenous activity within a month. The result eliminates the wiggle and sag on the a ...

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Upper Respiratory Infection
Upper respiratory infection is the medical term for the common cold. The common cold is caused by any one of over 200 viruses but most commonly comes from the rhinovirus. Cold viruses get into your body through your mouth or nose, usually from being sneezed into the air or being passed from dirty hands. The cold viruses can live on counters, utensils, doorknobs and other surfaces where it is then passed on to others when they touch their eyes, nose or mouth. As its name suggests, colds are q ...
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Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from small urine leaks to a complete emptying of the bladder. Most bladder control problems occur when muscles are too weak or overactive. When muscles are weak, pressure from a laugh, cough or sneeze can trigger an embarrassing loss of control. With overactive bladder, uncontrolled contractions of the bladder muscles create a sudden urge to urinate that cannot ...

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Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)

In this surgical procedure, an electrode is connected with a nerve in the neck called the vagus nerve and to a battery resembling a pacemaker. The device is implanted under the collarbone. To help prevent seizures, it sends a small, regular pulse of electrical energy to the brain via stimulation of the nerve.

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Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are larger, abnormal veins close to the skin surface. They often look like large ropes or clusters of grapes under the skin.

Although many people with varicose veins complain of discomfort, these symptoms usually are not harmful to your health. 

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Varicose Veins

Veins are thin-walled, soft structures that carry blood back to the heart. Normally, the blood flows in one direction (toward the heart), as the valves inside the veins prevent blood from going in the reverse direction.


Varicose veins are those dark, twisted, damaged veins ...

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Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins do not efficiently return blood from the legs back to the heart. It occurs when the vein valves do not function properly, or when there is a chronic blockage in the veins. Both of these may occur after a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).  Chronic venous insufficiency is one of the most common chronic conditions in the United States and worldwide.

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Very Very Long Limb Gastric Bypass
Bariatric Surgery is a type of surgery done for weight loss in extremely obese people. Generally this surgery is done by modifying the normal size or pathway of the digestive system, especially the stomach. In the normal digestive system, the food goes into the stomach where it begins being digested, then passes to the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed) then proceeds to the large intestine (where water is absorbed) then the waste products subsequently pass out of the bottom as stoo ...
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Voice Therapy

Vocal health, vocal rehabilitation, nasality, muscle tension dysphonia, spasmodic dysphonia, vocal paresis, age related voice changes.

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Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)

In Wet ARMD, new blood vessels (known as choroidal neovascularization) form underneath the retina.  These blood vessels are weak and often leak blood or fluid which can result in distortion or blurring of vision.  If left untreated, the fluid and blood under the retina can become a scar which can cause severe vision loss.

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